Morphological classification of languages

Posted by on May 29, 2020 in General

Morphological classification of languages ??- typological classification of world languages ??based on the principles of morphological structure of words.

According to this classification, all languages ??are divided into: root, agglutinative, inflectional and polysynthetic.

Root languages

In root languages, words do not break down into morphemes: roots and affixes. Words of such languages ??are morphologically unformed units for example indefinite words of the Ukrainian language there, here, from exactly where, where. The root languages ??are Vietnamese, Burmese, Old Chinese, largely modern day Chinese. Grammatical relations among essaywriter words in these languages ??are transmitted by intonation, service words, word order.

Agglutinative languages

Agglutinative languages ??consist of Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages. In their structure, additionally for the root, there are affixes (each word-changing and word-forming). The peculiarity of affixes in these languages ??is that every single affix is ??unambiguous, ie each and every of them serves to express only one grammatical which means, with whatever root it is actually combined. That is how they differ from inflectional languages, in which the affix acts as a carrier of several grammatical meanings at when.

Inflectional languages

Inflectional languages ??- languages ??in which the major role inside the expression of grammatical meanings is played by inflection (ending). Inflectional languages ??involve Indo-European and Semitic-Hamitic. As opposed to agglutinative languages, exactly where affixes are unambiguous, standard and mechanically attached to full words, in inflectional languages ??the ending is ambiguous, non-standard, joins the base, which can be usually not made use of without inflection, and organically merges with all the base, forming a single alloy, because of this, several changes can happen in the junction of morphemes. The formal interpenetration of contacting morphemes, which leads to the blurring of the boundaries between them, is named fusion. Hence the second name of inflectional languages ??- fusion.

Polysynthetic languages

Polysynthetic, or incorporating – languages ??in which diverse parts of a sentence in the kind of amorphous base words are combined into a single complex, comparable to complicated words. Therefore, in the language with the Aztecs (an Indian men and women living in Mexico), the word-sentence pinakapilkva, which indicates I eat meat, was formed from the composition with the words pi – I, nakatl – meat and kvya – to consume. Such a word corresponds to our sentence. This is explained by the fact that in polysynthetic languages ??diverse objects of action and circumstances in which the action requires location can be expressed not by individual members with the sentence (applications, circumstances), but by different affixes which might be part of verb forms. In aspect, the verb forms include things like the topic.

Typological classification of languages ??- a classification depending on the identification of similarities and variations in the structure of languages, no matter their genetic relatedness.

Thus, when the genealogical classification unites languages ??by their origin, then the typological classification divides languages ??by the attributes of their structure, irrespective of their origin and location in space. In conjunction with the term typological classification of languages, the term morphological classification is typically utilized as a synonym. Such use of your term morphological classification of languages ??as an alternative to typological classification of languages ??is unjustified and inappropriate for a number of motives. Very first, the word morphological is related in linguistics with the term morphology, which suggests the grammatical doctrine of the word and the structure in the word, not the language as a whole. By the way, some linguists have an understanding of the morphological classification: speaking of morphological, or typological, classification, we mean the classification of languages ??on the basis of morphological structure, word form. In fact, the typological classification goes far beyond morphology. Secondly, in current years, various forms of typological classification have grow to be increasingly typical: morphological, syntactic, phonetic, and so on.